Medical experts define Pancytopenia as a health condition that involves a drop in the number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) and platelets in the bloodstream.

Pancytopenia is different from other diseases that are marked by blood cell reduction. The condition is often mistaken for Anemia that involves a drop in red blood cell count. It is also misidentified with Leukopenia which is characterized by a low level of white blood cells. Pancytopenia, however, involves a drop in all the different types of blood cells and platelets.

Pancytopenia is also known as Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome. This is because the condition results from a failure of the bone marrow or decreased bone marrow production.

Pancytopenia Symptoms

Pancytopenia sufferers display a number of abnormalities apart from low blood cell and platelet count. These signs and symptoms of Pancytopenia are mostly internal in nature even though some are visible from the outside as well. Some of the major Pancytopenia signs and symptoms are:


Decreased blood cell levels cause tiredness in people suffering from this condition.


The low blood cell count can make the person vulnerable to complicated conditions like infections.

Nose Bleeding

Pancytopenia patients commonly suffer from bleeding through the nose which becomes a cause for concern for them.

Increased Menstrual Bleeding

Women suffering from this health syndrome often experience excessive bleeding during their menstrual periods.


Excessive bleeding may lead to hemorrhage in some people.


Hemorrhage in blood vessels may give rise to tiny red spots in the skin.


There is a visible paleness in the skin of the affected people.

Rapid Heart Beat

The suffering persons may also experience an increased heart rate.

Shortness of Breath

The patient may also suffer from a shortness of breath. Reduced breathing rate may be a cause of concern as may also be an indication of other health conditions like pulmonary embolism or pneumonia. In serious cases, it may also be a symptom of an impending heart attack.

Pancytopenia Causes

Pancytopenia may result from a variety of factors. Some of the main causes of Pancytopenia are:

Bone Marrow Diseases

Diseases that affect bone marrow, such as Leukemia, impact new blood cell production and may lead to Pancytopenia.

Radiation Exposure

Exposure to radiation can also damage the bone marrow and cause the condition.

Autoimmune Disorders

Diseases affecting immunity, such as HIV, often appear as one of the major Pancytopenia causes. These days, in most cases of Pancytopenia HIV is being found to be the prime cause.


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